What are the symptoms and types of tuberculosis?
What is tuberculosis and its types?
Tuberculosis is the other name for tuberculosis, which is a contagious disease that usually affects the lung, but it can also spread to the brain and spinal cord. In the past, it was difficult to treat tuberculosis and therefore it was one of the causes of death worldwide, but now it can be cured but it continues for a period Long time.
Types of tuberculosis
There are two types of tuberculosis, they are:
This means that the patient is a carrier of the bacteria that causes tuberculosis, but it is in an idle state that does not cause disease and does not cause infection to others. This occurs when the immune system is strong and able to prevent the disease from spreading, but the infection may be activated if the immune system becomes weak, or in case of infection. Others during the last two years, or in case of HIV infection, here the doctor will prescribe drugs that prevent the activity of the bacteria that causes tuberculosis.
In this case the bacteria that causes tuberculosis becomes active and divides and spreads to become infectious to other people, as it causes many symptoms in the patient, it is worth noting that about 90% of cases of active tuberculosis were originally cases of inactive tuberculosis.
Symptoms of tuberculosis (TB)
The appearance of symptoms here depends on the type of disease and the affected organ in the body, and symptoms develop gradually, so the patient may not notice anything wrong until weeks have passed after the infection, and the symptoms are as follows:
Symptoms of passive tuberculosis
Usually, the patient does not show any symptoms of passive tuberculosis, because the bacteria here in an idle state do not cause any fatigue to the patient, and this may continue for months and even years before the disease becomes in an active state causing symptoms, and the bacteria may not be active at all.
General active TB symptoms
Here comes the question, “How do I know the symptoms of tuberculosis?”, Active tuberculosis usually has several common symptoms that may be caused by tuberculosis or may have other causes, such as:
Loss of appetite and weight loss.
Feeling of fatigue and tiredness is severe.
But these signs may be for other reasons, and here we must mention in detail the symptoms of tuberculosis, according to the affected organ of the body, as follows:
Symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis
It is a common condition of tuberculosis that affects the lung, and its symptoms include:
A persistent cough for more than 3 weeks, accompanied by sputum and sometimes accompanied by blood.
Shortness of breath that gets worse over time.
Also read: Causes of bloody cough and when to see a doctor
Symptoms of tuberculosis outside the lung
It is not uncommon for tuberculosis to affect other parts of the body outside the lung, but it may affect the lymph nodes, bones and joints, the digestive system, bladder and reproductive system, brain and nerves, and more than one who suffers from this type are people with weakened immune systems.
With these parts affected, some symptoms may appear, the most important of which are:
A common symptom of tuberculosis in the neck is a persistent swelling and swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck.
Symptoms of tuberculosis in the bones include pain and difficulty moving in the affected bones and joints.
Feeling of confusion and confusion.
Feeling a persistent headache.
Symptoms of tuberculosis in children
Children younger than 15 years are among the most common groups that can develop tuberculosis, due to their weakened immune system. They are also more likely to develop the active type of tuberculosis, and symptoms that appear on children include:
Feeling of general weakness, fatigue, and decreased child activity.
Defective growth and weight loss.
Causes and risk factors for tuberculosis
Tuberculosis (TB) disease is caused by a type of bacteria called (Mycobacterium Tuberculosis) which is transmitted from one person to another through a spray of cough or sneezing that carries the bacteria. In order for a person to become infected, he must spend a long period of time closely with an infected person, as for risk factors What causes the infection are:
People who live in areas with common tuberculosis infection, or even return from it after staying there for a long time.
Long-term life or close contact with someone with TB.
Life in crowded places.
Having conditions that weaken the immune system, such as diabetes.
Take immune-weakening medications, such as chemotherapy.
Children and the elderly are more susceptible to infection because of their weakened immune system.
Generally poor health and a diet that lacks many nutrients due to lifestyle, such as drug and alcohol addicts, and homeless people.
After confirming the occurrence of tuberculosis, comes the treatment phase, which can never be neglected as it will continue for a relatively long period, because the tuberculosis may cause death if it is not treated properly.
In the case of treatment of active tuberculosis, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics, which last for at least 6 or 9 months, and the length of treatment depends on the patient's condition and age, how well his body is resistant to medications.
In the case of passive tuberculosis it is possible to take only two types of these drugs, while in the case of active tuberculosis and the state of drug-resistant tuberculosis, it will require taking more than two types of drugs together simultaneously, such as Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide.
In the case of drug-resistant TB, it may require the addition of other types of antibiotics and other drugs that may continue treatment for 20-30 months.
Learn more about tuberculosis treatment and medication side effects
Finally, you must know that infection with tuberculosis is not the end of life. The disease can be controlled only, and requires a lot of patience and following the doctor’s instructions.