What is Parkinson's disease?
Parkinson is a disease that appears gradually. It often begins with an almost imperceptible and invisible tremor in one hand. And while the emergence of flickering is the most obvious distinguishing feature of Parkinson's disease, the syndrome generally slows or freezes movement as well. Friends and family members can notice the immobility of facial features, unable to express, and the arms do not move on either side of the body when walking. Often, the speech becomes more fluffy with the complement.
The symptoms of Parkinson's disease worsen as the disease progresses more.
Although Parkinson's disease cannot be cured, many types of medications to treat Parkinson's can help relieve symptoms. In certain cases, surgical treatments may be required.
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease
The symptoms that accompany Parkinson's vary from person to person. The initial symptoms may be only implicit, without being noticeable for many months, and even for many years. Symptoms begin to appear, first, on one side of the body, and are always more severe and dangerous on this same side, in the future.
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease include:
Tremor / shivering: the characteristic tremor (tremor) that accompanies Parkinson's disease often begins in one hand. They appear as thumb rubbing with the index finger with frequent movement, forward and backward, also called "pill-tremor tremor" (or tremor tremor). This is the most common symptom. However, a large proportion of Parkinson's patients do not show a noticeable strong shiver.
Slow motion (Bradykinesia): Over time, Parkinson's disease may limit the patient's ability to carry out movements and voluntary actions, which may make daily activities easier and simpler complex tasks and require a longer period of time. When walking, the patient's steps may become shorter and less heavy, his feet dragged, or the feet may freeze in place, which makes it difficult for him to start with the first step.
Muscular rigidity: Muscular rigidity often appears at the extremities and in the scruff area (back of the neck). Sometimes deafness is so severe that it restricts the range of movement and is accompanied by severe pain.
Upright erection and imbalance: The stature of a Parkinson's patient may become convex due to illness. He may also suffer from an imbalance, a common symptom in Parkinson's patients, although it is generally mild to even the most advanced stages of the disease.
Loss of involuntary movement: blinking, smiling and moving hands when walking - are involuntary movements, an integral part of being a human being. In Parkinson's patients, however, these movements appear less frequently and sometimes even disappear. Some Parkinson's patients may have a frozen look, without the ability to blink, while others may appear without any expressive movements or they may appear, and be heard, artificial (artificial) when they speak.
Speech changes: The majority of Parkinson's patients have difficulty speaking. The words of the Parkinson's patient may become softer, monotonic, monotonous, and may "swallow" part of the words from time to time or he may repeat words he has said before, or he may become hesitant when he wants to speak.
Dementia: In the advanced stages of the disease, some Parkinson's patients have memory problems and partially lose their mental clarity. In this regard, drugs used to treat Alzheimer's Disease may help reduce some of these symptoms to a more moderate degree.
Causes and risk factors for Parkinson's disease
The vast majority of Parkinson's symptoms are caused by a deficiency of a chemical transporter in the brain called dopamine. This occurs when certain cells in the brain die or are atrophied, which is responsible for the production of dopamine. However, researchers do not know with certainty and definitively, so far, the first and primary factor that causes this series of operations. Some researchers believe that genetic changes, or environmental toxins, have an impact on the appearance of Parkinson's disease.
Risk factors for Parkinson's disease include:
Age: young adults rarely develop Parkinson's. Parkinson's disease appears in general, middle-aged and middle-aged, and with age, more and more, the degree of risk of developing Parkinson's also increases.
Heredity: If the family has one or more relatives with Parkinson's disease, the risk of developing Parkinson's disease increases, although this possibility does not exceed 5%. Recently, evidence has been found to demonstrate the existence of a whole network of genes responsible for programming the brain’s structure and function.
Gender: Men are more likely to develop Parkinson's than women.
Exposure to toxins: Continuous exposure to herbicide and pesticides will slightly increase the risk of developing Parkinson's.
Complications of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease is often accompanied by additional problems, including:
- Sleep disorders
Problems chewing or swallowing
Sexual performance problems
Some medications intended to treat Parkinson's may cause a number of complications and complications, including: tremors or shaking in the arms or legs, hallucination, hypotension and a sharp drop in blood pressure when the position changes from sitting to standing.
Treating Parkinson's disease
The initial reaction to receiving news of Parkinson's disease can be severe, dramatic and difficult. However, with the passage of time, taking medications reduces symptoms so that these are controlled, to a satisfactory degree. The attending physician can recommend that the patient make changes in his daily lifestyle, such as: the adoption of physical therapy, healthy nutrition and physical activity, in addition to taking medications. In certain cases, surgical treatment can be of benefit.
Medication therapy can help to overcome gait problems and control tremors by raising the level of dopamine in the brain. It is indicated, here, that there is no benefit in taking dopamine itself, because it cannot penetrate the brain. The most common drug to treat Parkinson's is Levodopa.
The more advanced Parkinson's disease, the less effective levodopa will be. This always requires an appropriate dosage.
Levodopa side effects and side effects include: confusion, delirium and hallucinations, as well as involuntary movements / actions called "dyskinesia". All of these reduce the dose by lowering the degree of control over the symptoms and phenomena that accompany Parkinson's disease.
MAO B Brakes
COMT- Catechol O - methyltransferase)
Acetylcholine in the Parasympathetic nervous system
DeepBrainStimulation - DBS is the most popular surgical treatment for Parkinson's disease. Surgery includes the implantation of an electrical conductor (electrode) in the depth of the brain regions responsible for body movements.
The degree of electrical stimulation transmitted through these conductors is monitored by an artificial pacemaker (Artificial pacemaker) that is implanted below the surface of the skin at the top of the chest. A conductive wire is inserted and passed under the surface of the skin to connect to the device, which is called a "pulse generator," at the first end, and the electrical conductor (electrode) at the other end.
Often, this surgery is used in people who are in very advanced stages of Parkinson's disease, whose condition does not stabilize, even after taking levodopa.
This therapeutic procedure may assist in stabilizing and stabilizing drug dosages and in reducing involuntary movements (dyskinesia). However, this surgery is not effective in treating dementia, and may even aggravate and worsen the situation.